1 edition of Disinfection efficiency and residual toxicity of several wastewater disinfectants found in the catalog.
Disinfection efficiency and residual toxicity of several wastewater disinfectants
by Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, for sale by the National Technical Information Service in Cincinnati, Ohio, Springfield, Va
Written in English
|Statement||by Ronald W. Ward...[et at.]|
|Series||Environmental protection technology series ; EPA-600/2-77-203|
|Contributions||Ward, Ronald W, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory|
|The Physical Object|
disinfection system (steel cylinder to the right of the control box) used to treat sand filter effluent before landscape irrigation. System footprint Systems are relatively small, occupying several square feet for an individual or cluster system. Advantages An effective disinfectant. Does not leave residual chemical or toxicity in the water. The reclamation and disinfection of waters impacted by human activities (e.g., wastewater effluent discharges) are of growing interest for various applications but has been associated with the formation of toxic nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (N-DBPs).
5 Effect of Cl 2 on zRecent study on effect of chlorine on E. coli zTested 6 strains of OH7 at 4 Cl 2 levels mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L X 0 1 and 2 mins contact time z5/6 isolates + E. coli control strain were highly susceptible to chlorine z>7 log10 reduction of each of these strains by mg/L free chlorine within 1 min (CT value = ). An overview of the chemical disinfection of a CSO, from the batch scale to the full-scale, was studied, and disinfection efficiency was evaluated by calculating the removal of bacteria from a CSO and quantifying disinfectants during treatment. Residual toxicity was studied for a preliminary risk assessment of disinfectants entering the aquatic.
Once pathogens have been removed during wastewater disinfection, any residual disinfectant must be removed prior to discharge into a natural water body. There are several disinfectant compounds available, including chlorine, ozone, bromine, and iodine dosing systems, of which chlorine is the most common. A variety of factors can influence disinfection efficiency when using breakpoint chlorination or chloramines. One of the most important of these is the concentration of chlorine residual in the water. The chlorine residual depends upon the chlorine dose and chlorine demand. The chlorine residual in the clear water storage should be at least
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EPA/ October DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY AND RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF SEVERAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS Volume I Grandville, Michigan by Ronald W. Ward Department of Biology Grand Valley State Colleges Allendale, Michigan Randall D. Giffin City of Wyomin-g, Michigan G. Michael DeGraeve Department of Biology Grand Valley State Colleges.
Get this from a library. Disinfection efficiency and residual toxicity of several wastewater disinfectants. [Ronald W Ward;]. Disinfection efficiency and residual toxicity of several wastewater disinfectants. Cincinnati: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, (OCoLC) Material Type: Government publication, National government publication: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Ronald W Ward.
EPA/ November DISINFECTION EFFICIENCY AND RESIDUAL TOXICITY OF SEVERAL WASTEWATER DISINFECTANTS Volume II - Wyoming, Michigan by Ronald W. Ward Department of Biology Grand Valley State Colleges Allendale, Michigan Randall D. Giffin City of Wyoming, Michigan G.
Michael DeGraeve Department of Biology Grand Valley State Colleges. Disinfection efficiency and residual toxicity of several wastewater disinfectants: volume I, Grandville, Michigan / By Ronald W.
Ward, Municipal Environmental Research. Acute Residual Toxicity of Several Wastewater Disinfectants to Aquatic Life The results of the disinfection efficiency, residual disinfectants and urban wastewater disinfection is. Water must be made safe to drink, and an important step in ensuring water safety is disinfection.
Disinfectants are added to water to kill disease-causing microorganisms. Ground water sources can be disinfected by “The Water Treatment Rule,” which requires public water systems for disinfection. Chlorination, ozone, ultraviolet light, and chloramines are primary methods for disinfection.
After evaluating several disinfection technologies, including sodium hypochlorite and sodium bisulfite, the city went out to bid for a disinfection technology and PAA was chosen.
This was the first commercial use of PAA for wastewater disinfection in the United States. There are only a few reports detailing the photocatalytic disinfection efficiency of algae.
Linkous et al. utilized TiO 2 and WO 3 coating with noble co-catalysts Pt and Ir to study the disinfection strategy of the filamentous Oedogonium algae in the presence and absence of the coating .The results revealed that a cement surface coated with TiO 2 was highly effective in the disinfection.
ozone disinfection. C The chlorine residual that remains in the wastewater effluent can prolong disinfection even after initial treatment and can be measured to evaluate the effectiveness. C Dosing rates are flexible and can be controlled easily.
Disadvantages C The chlorine residual is toxic to aquatic life and the system may require. Microorganisms vary greatly in their resistance to chemical germicides and sterilization processes (Figure 1) Intrinsic resistance mechanisms in microorganisms to disinfectants vary.
For example, spores are resistant to disinfectants because the spore coat and cortex act as a barrier, mycobacteria have a waxy cell wall that prevents disinfectant entry, and gram-negative bacteria possess an.
Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet: Chlorine Disinfection Author: US EPA, OW, OWM, Water Permits Division Subject: Fact sheet on disinfection, one of the primary mechanisms for the inactivation or destruction of pathogenic organisms. Contains information on how to use chlorine as a disinfectant for municipal wastewater.
Also available in Spanish. ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the comparative acute toxicity of chlorine, bromine chloride and ozone in wastewater, and to determine any acute toxicity associated with chlorinated wastewater which had been dechlorinated with sulfur dioxide.
Toxicity tests were conducted with several species of cyprinids, salmonids and centrarchids, and the freshwater macroinvertebrate. Additionally, the lack of a disinfectant residual can negatively impact the quality of the downstream effluent.
“The kinetics of disinfection are also complicated by the fact that disinfectant-injured organisms, through repair mechanisms, can reactivate to a limited extent both in light and dark. In wastewater field, ozonation is effective in removing colour and oxidizing refractory organics, in particular when treating industrial wastewater, but also in effluent disinfection (Lazarova et.
One good reference book that touches many different applications is the Water Quality Association's Ozone -- A Reference Manual.
UV light systems seem to be more widely used within the wastewater industry. Wastewater treatment plants worldwide have proven UV a viable alternative for disinfection if monitored and maintained properly. Here, the disinfectant exposure, defined in equation (1), simply corresponds to C n final* t, where C final is the terminal disinfectant residual, and t is the treatment time.
The coefficient of dilution, n, frequently corresponds to 1, indicating a proportional contribution of the oxidant and the exposure time to disinfection. Disinfection is the critical final process in the management of wastewater and excreta for the protection of human health.
Pathogens in wastewater can be inactivated or destroyed by either chemical or physical processes. Physical means of disinfection do not involve the addition of chemicals, but disrupt normal microbial function or cause structural damage to pathogens through physical means.
Solar disinfection; Primary and Residual Disinfection Primary Disinfection. Primary disinfection relates to the main disinfection process intended to assure the disinfection of a water.
While most water treatment works employ multiple barriers, the primary disinfection step is considered the principal point of disinfection. To summarize the above results from literature in terms of the disinfection efficiency of PAA, values for residual concentration multiplied by contact time (CT), measured in mg min l −1, vs.
log reduction data were extracted from various studies for a particular microorganism and wastewater type (i.e., raw, primary, and secondary effluents).
Fig. 1, Fig. 2 show CT vs. log reduction data for. Wagner M, Brumelis D, Gehr R. Disinfection of wastewater by hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid: development of procedures for measurement of residual disinfectant and application to a physicochemically treated municipal effluent.
Water Environ Res. ; – doi: /X [Google Scholar].The final treatment step in municipal wastewater treatment is the disinfection process. Disinfection is required to reduce and destroy the bacteria, virus and protozoa populations in the wastewater before discharge into the receiving body of water.
The disinfection of wastewater is critical to the protection of public health and the environment.Finally, residual disinfectant concentration vs. coliform/E. coli data were presented from the Agency’s recently released third Six-Year Review supporting the relationship between disinfectant residual and microbial stability reported in the scientific literature.
This study evaluated the meaning of minimum disinfection residuals, the effects.